Saturday, 24 March 2018

Antibiotic Resistance Transfer Mechanism

Bacteria have developed resistance towards most of the drugs nowadays. Those bacteria are called as multi-drug resistant bacteria which include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE), ESBL (extended spectrum beta-lactamase) producing Enterobacteriaceae. European Molecular Biology Laboratory has introduced a major antibiotic resistance transfer mechanism on molecular basis to fight against these multi-drug resistant bacteria. They also established molecules and a proof-of-principle for blocking this transfer.
The major reason for resistance spreading in bacteria is transposon also called as jumping DNA. Transposons are genetic elements that can change its location in the genome. When it is transferred into the genome, it carries antibiotic resistance genes with them. Therefore, Barabas group at EMBL focus on transposons and their molecular structure.
EMBL researchers discovered a transposon insertion machine to insert transposase protein into the DNA in an inactive state. After binding it into the DNA, it prevents the cleavage and destruction of transposon due to its inactivity. The transposon shape itself focus the DNA to unwind and separate it to transfer the antibiotic resistance into the host genome. So, to avoid the antibiotic resistance transfer, we must maintain the inactivity of transposase protein. By blocking its architecture, we can able to maintain its inactivity. Another method is a DNA mimic that binds to the transposon’s open site, so that the DNA replacement cannot be done to transfer the antibiotic resistance. By this method, we can target the specific bacteria and not all the bacteria in our body.
More and More innovations are yet to be discovered and shared. But there is a place where we can share everything that happens in the field of Molecular biology and medicine. And that place is nothing but our conference titling “6th Annual Congress on Biology and Medicine of Molecules” occurring on September 17-18, 2018 in Abu Dhabi, UAE.
For more details, please go through:
Journal Reference:
  1. Anna Rubio-Cosials, Eike C. Schulz, Lotte Lambertsen, Georgy Smyshlyaev, Carlos Rojas-Cordova, Kristoffer Forslund, Ezgi Karaca, Aleksandra Bebel, Peer Bork, Orsolya Barabas. Transposase-DNA Complex Structures Reveal Mechanisms for Conjugative Transposition of Antibiotic Resistance. Cell, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.02.032

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