Sunday, 12 May 2019


Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms. Chemotherapy is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, which is called medical oncology. Chemotherapy is the use of any drug to treat any disease. But to most people, the word chemotherapy means drugs used for cancer treatment. It's often shortened to “chemo”. Surgery and radiation therapy remove, kill, or damage cancer cells in a certain area, but chemo can work throughout the whole body.

Chemotherapy drugs that kill cancer cells only when they are dividing are called cell-cycle specific. Chemotherapy drugs that kill cancer cells when they are at rest are called cell-cycle non-specific. The scheduling of chemotherapy is set based on the type of cells, the rate at which they divide, and the time at which a given drug is likely to be effective. This is why chemotherapy is typically given in cycles. Chemotherapy is most effective at killing cells that are rapidly dividing. Unfortunately, chemotherapy does not know the difference between cancer cells and normal cells. The "normal" cells will grow back and be healthy but in the meantime, side effects occur. The "normal" cells most commonly affected by chemotherapy are the blood cells, the cells in the mouth, stomach and bowel, and the hair follicles; resulting in low blood counts, mouth sores, nausea, diarrhea, and/or hair loss. Different drugs may affect different parts of the body. Chemotherapy (anti-neoplastic drugs) is divided into five classes based on how they work to kill cancer. Although these drugs are divided into groups, there is some overlap among some of the specific drugs. Further sections discuss several different types of chemotherapy in the effort to further explain these important procedures.

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Contact Us:
Janet Clark
Program Manager | Cancer Genomics 2019
Tel: +1-201-380-5561 (Ext. No: 7014)

Monday, 6 May 2019

Cancer Treatment & its Types

Cancer Treatment:
There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you simply receive can depend upon the type of cancer you have and how advanced it is. Some individuals with cancer can have just one treatment. However, the majority have a combination of treatments, like surgery with therapy and/or radiotherapy. Once you want treatment for cancer, you have lots to find out and consider. It is traditional to feel overcome and confused. But, talking together with your doctor and learning regarding the types of treatment you may have will facilitate your feel additional in control.

Types of Cancer Treatment:
1. Surgery

When accustomed to treat cancer, surgery is a procedure in which a surgeon removes cancer from your body. Learn the various ways in which surgery is used against cancer and what you can expect before, during, and after surgery.

2. Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy is a sort of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. To study the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you would possibly have, and more.

3. Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses medicine to kill cancer cells. Find out how therapy works against cancer, why it causes aspect effects and the way it is used with alternative cancer treatments.

4. Immunotherapy to Treat Cancer

Immunotherapy is a sort of treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. Gets information regarding the types of immunotherapy and what you'll be able to expect throughout treatment.

5. Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is a variety of cancer treatment that targets the changes in cancer cells that facilitate them to grow, divide and spread. Find out how targeted therapy works against cancer and concerning common aspect effects that may occur.

6. Hormone therapy

Hormone therapy is a treatment that slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Find out about the types of hormone therapy and aspect effects that may happen.

7. Stem cell Transplant

Stem cell transplants are procedures that restore blood-forming stem cells in cancer patients World Health Organization have had theirs destroyed by terribly high doses of therapy or radiation. Find out about the types of transplants, aspect effects which will occur, and how stem cell transplants are employed in cancer treatment.

8. Precision medicine

Precision medicine helps doctors choose treatments that are possible to assist patients supported a genetic understanding of their unwellness. Find out about the role preciseness medicine plays in cancer treatment, as well as however genetic changes in an exceedingly person's cancer are known and used to choose treatments.

Contact Us:
Janet Clark
Program Manager | Cancer Genomics 2019
Tel: +1-201-380-5561

Friday, 4 May 2018

The Estrogenic Receptor: A Molecular Medicine

The recognizable proof of the estrogen receptor (ER) in the research center gave a mechanism to portray the objective site specificity of estrogen activity in uterus, vagina, pituitary organ, and breast cancer. In particular, a test was built up to anticipate the result of antihormonal treatment in breast cancer, and an objective was distinguished to grow new medications for the treatment and counteractive action of breast cancer. The advancement of tamoxifen for the treatment of all phases of ER-positive breast cancers has brought about the enhanced survival of breast cancer patients. Nonetheless, the identification of specific ER modulation, i.e., estrogen-like activity in bones and reducing the circulating cholesterol  has brought about the advancement of multifunctional pharmaceuticals with the objective of anticipating breast and uterine cancer as well as osteoporosis and coronary illness.
The connection amongst hormones and breast cancer development and advancement has been perceived for over a century. It is accounted for that expulsion of the ovaries from premenopausal women with breast cancer created a sensational decrease in tumor size and enhanced the patient's anticipation. The measure of the tumor expanded and diminished amid the menstrual cycle, in premenopausal ladies with cutting edge breast cancer. Unfortunately, oophorectomy did not profit all patients. Just 1/3 of the patients reacted to ovarian removal and reactions which lasted, for 1-2 years. From that point onward, oophorectomy was replaced by ovarian irradiation for premenopausal patients, though adrenalectomy and hypophysectomy turned into the treatment alternatives for postmenopausal patients. Notwithstanding, the disclosure of estrogenic hormones delivered in the ovary prompted the scan for a restorative antagonist to lessen breast cancer in individuals inclined to the infection by their affectability to estrogenic hormones.
The predominant theory to clarify estrogenic activity was that estrogens apply their activities by taking an interest in enzymatic procedures of digestion. However, progresses in radioisotope chemistry for tritium, encouraged the distinguishing proof of a receptor protein that intervenes the different activities of estrogen without metabolic adjustment of the hormone itself. These revelations gave the vital knowledge to comprehend the complexities of steroid endocrinology and opened the way to molecular targeting in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer.

Thursday, 26 April 2018

Bioconjugated Nanogels

Nanogels are otherwise called as nanocarriers for the encapsulation and delivery of biomolecules. Designing nanogels as delivery systems for biomolecules with a capacity to respond to the external physical and chemical signals like pH and temperature. Moreover, it has enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, due to their extremely small size. There are many advances that have been developed in designing nanogels for various purposes. Some of them are as follows:

  • Nanogels for intracellular delivery of genetic materialNowadays, gene therapy designed for delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), plasmid DNA (pDNA), siRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) used in targeted inhibition of specific mRNA sequences has developed as one of the most favourable method to treat and diagnose diseases like cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and viral infections. However, the major tests in designing an intracellular gene delivery system exist in crossing the cell membranes without being premature degraded by endogenous enzymes and providing a controlled release of the genetic material into the cell nucleus without inducing cytotoxicity and an immune response following degradation.
  • Nanogels for specific targeted protein delivery - The major problem in using proteins and peptides as therapeutic agents are the protein stabilization in delivery reservoirs at physiological pH values and temperatures and the proper design of protein carriers for the sustained and targeted delivery. One of the approaches in overcoming these limitations is to entrap proteins into hydrogel nanoparticles (nanogel), which can reduce denaturation of proteins by forming a colloidal stable complex with proteins at the nanometer scale (<50 nm).
  • Bioconjugated hydrogel nanoparticle as vaccine delivery or adjuvant systemsRecently, multi-responsive polymeric nanogels have developed a new vaccine delivery system which is capable of initiating innate immune response or enhancing antigen delivery. Therefore, in the case of genetic material and protein encapsulation, nanogels intrinsic properties allow protecting vaccine antigens from degradation in vivo and, by bioconjugation with antibodies or specific ligands, could increase active targeting specificity. Among them, polysaccharide-based nanogels such as cationic cholesterol-bearing pullulan (cCHP) appear to be very appealing as vaccine delivery systems due to their great biocompatibility and the abundance in unprocessed sources.

Limitation of using nanogels as targeted delivery systems is represented by their low target site specificity. Therefore, by conjugation of nanogels or nanogel compounds with biomolecules such as ligands, proteins or other molecules having molecular recognition specificity, the specificity for targeted delivery will improve. Attachment of biomolecules allows a rapid internalization of nanogels into the cells through endocytosis.

Thursday, 12 April 2018

Stem Cells for Neurological disorders

Due to the loss of neurons and glial cells, neurological disorders like Parkinson’s disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis are caused. Nowadays, stem cells are cultured to develop neurons and glia to minimise the neurological disorders.  Moreover, efforts have been taken to reduce the death of neurons and glial cells produced by stem cells, within the central nervous system.

On account of a few disorders, increases can probably be induced just with transplanted cells produced from undifferentiated cells in vitro, while in different conditions the stimulation of endogenous CNS stem cells might be valuable. In the case of Huntington’s disease, it is caused by the demise of projection neurons in the striatum. Stem cell treatment means to re-establish or save brain function by replacing and ensuring striatal neurons. In creature models of HD, cell substitution utilizing fetal striatal neurons advances functional recovery and some proof from clinical trials shows this can also happen in patients. By contrast, stem cell based methodologies are still in their earliest stages, and the reproduction of striatal neural hardware has not been appeared in animals.

Before we apply stem-cell treatments to patients, we should have the capacity to control the expansion and separation of stem cells into particular cell phenotypes and to prevent tumor formation. Besides, the viability of stem cells and their systems of activity ought to be exhibited in animal models with pathology and symptomatology resembling the human sickness. It might be hard to interpret information got in creatures to people as a result of animal varieties contrasts in the level of neuronal plasticity and an inadequate learning of illness mechanisms. We should see how to impact the neurotic tissue condition, including inflammatory and resistant responses, to permit productive repair. Finally, we should recollect that however energizing the neurobiological components may be, the clinical convenience of stem cells will be controlled by their capacity to provide patients with neurological disorders with protected, durable and considerable upgrades in quality of life.

Friday, 6 April 2018

The Druggable Genome

The subsets of approximately 30,000 genes in the human genome that can bind to drug like molecules by expressing proteins are called as “The Druggable Genome”.  This concept is raised because of the limitation of molecular targets for which commercially viable compounds can be developed. This means that “The Druggable Genome” which has the ability to produce proteins to bind with drugs.
Commercially viable drug means an orally bioavailable compound. Physico-chemical properties are necessary to improve the oral bioavailability of drug which can be formalized by the Lipinski “rule of five” analysis. Most successful drug achieves their activity by searching for a binding site on protein with a small endogenous molecule. It is necessary that a drug must bind to its target molecule with a reasonable potency, to be more effective.
Survey has been taken to find the molecular targets for a drug to bind on its binding site. Analysis of International Drug Database and the Pharmaprojects Database recognise 399 non-redundant molecular targets. In that, several proteins are targeted by experimental drugs and some are eliminated because of its inactivity according to the rule of five analysis. Most of the drugs identified in this survey are competitive. Those targets fall into the six gene families:
·         G-protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs)
·         Serine/Threonine and Tyrosine protein kinases
·         Zinc metallo-peptidases
·         Serine proteases
·         Nuclear hormone receptors
·         Phosphodiesterases
New methods such as protein drugs, antibody therapies, DNA vaccines and non-oral drug delivery systems, could expand the range of potential targets those which can’t be identified by rule of five analyses. The limited number of molecular targets for the drug suggest that the druggable genome to be produced in a cost-effective manner. This will be the major innovation for the pharmaceutical industry, not just in the case of science, but also in the case of business.

Friday, 30 March 2018

Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP)

The Database of Interacting Proteins is a database that archives tentatively decided protein – protein interactions. It gives established researchers an incorporated arrangement of apparatuses for extracting data about protein collaboration systems. The DIP inventories roughly 11 000 novel interactions among 5900 proteins are from in excess of 80 life forms; most of them are from yeast, Helicobacter pyloriand human. Instruments have been created that enable clients to examine, imagine and coordinate their own trial information with the data about protein– protein associations accessible in the DIP database.
The structure of the DIP has been designed to capture the essential information about protein–protein interactions available from experimental data. The database is implemented as a relational database composed of four tables. Protein Table lists proteins participating in an interaction within DIP. It provides, besides the DIP accession number, cross-references to the three major sequence databases (SWISS-PROT, GenBank, and PIR) as well as additional information about the proteins such as keyword, localization and cellular function.
DIP change envelops combination of the database with various effectively existing, settled natural databases, for example, SWISS-PROT, TRANSPATH, KEGG, and YPD to enable clients to effortlessly get to accumulate the greater part of the data about a solitary protein. To this we expect to build the quantity of cross-references revealed for each DIP section.


Chemotherapy  is a type of  cancer treatment  that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Ch...